Artist Colours in Hair Skin and Eyes

SPRING COLORS
All colors should be kept clear and bright.

Scarlet Lake: Poppy, Carnation, Cherry, Radish
Vermilion: Flame, Coral, Hibiscus, Apricot, Peach, Guava
Orange: Nasturtium
Cadmium: Natural gold, Sunflower, Yellow nasturtium
Sap Green: Apple, Lettuce, Parsley, Pea Pod
Hooker Green (sometimes combined with sap): Jade, Grass, Trees
Chrome Yellow: Butter, Buttercup, Cosmos, Daisy, Tulip
Lemon Yellow: Grapefruit, Champagne, Narcissus, Iris, Jonquil, Daffodil, Marigold
Indigo: Blackberry, Blueberry, Navy, Cadet Blue, Soldier Blue, Lupin
Cobalt: Cornflower, Periwinkle, Grape hyacinth, Bluebonnet
Cerulean: Persian turquoise
Ultramarine: Forget-me-not, Azure, Pansy
Parma Violet: Violet, Laurel, Lilac, Pansy

Neutrals:
Black
Van Dyke Brown (mixed with yellow): Yellow brown, Walnut brown, Yellow Beige, Caramel (match lightest tone of the hair), Café au lait (with yellow cast)
Indigo: Navy blue (if eyes are blue)
Davey Gray: Clear gray, Yellow or brown gray (avoid Payne’s gray with rose or blue cast)
White: Cream, Ivory

 

 

Early Spring
Skin tone color: raw umber, lemon yellow, chromium oxide.
Eye color: transparent viridian, cerulean, Payne’s grey.
Hair color: raw umber, lemon yellow.

 

Golden Spring
Skin tone color: chrome, raw umber, Persian Gold, and scarlet. Skin may also be tinged with white.
Eye color: cerulean, ultramarine blue, or transparent viridian and verde
Hair color: raw umber, chrome yellow medium.

Floral Spring
Skin tone color: chrome yellow, ivory with umber, geranium lake, or scarlet lake
Eye color: transparent viridian, cerulean blue, verde green, chrome yellow, umber
Hair color: raw umber, middle value

Vital Spring
Skin tone color: raw umber, chrome, vermilion, alizarin crimson
Eye color: ultramarine, cerulean, Payne’s grey, verde green
Hair color: burnt umber

SUMMER COLORS
Muted hues that seem to be tinged with rose or blue or grayed with their complements

Carmine: American Beauty, Azalea, Ruby, Strawberry, Cameo, Rose, Shell
Magenta: Fuchsia, Mulberry, Raspberry, Rhododendron
English Red: Claret, Garnet, Maroon, Cranberry, Pink Coral
Indigo: Blueberry, Blackberry, Hydrangea
Ultramarine (toned with violet): Heliotrope, Hyacinth, Periwinkle, Delphinium
Thio Violet (grayed with yellow or blue): Eggplant, Plum, Iris, Amethyst, Mauve
Parma Violet: Violet, Lilac, Cosmos, Pansy
Verde: Sea green, Nile green, Spruce, Eucalyptus
Transparent Viridian: Bottle green, Leaf green, Tourmaline, Aquamarine, Robin’s egg blue
Oranges: None
Persian Golds: None
Cadmium Yellow: None (Hollyhock yellow and cream are the only yellows becoming to the skin)

Neutrals:
Payne’s Gray: Slate, Powder blue, chalk blue, steel blue
Davey Gray: Dove, Silver gray, Ash, Mother of pearl
Van Dyke Brown (mixed with rose or blue): Rose beige, Fawn brown, Taupe, Mauve, Pecan

Iridescent Summer

Skin tone color: magenta, carmine, thio violet, Payne’s grey. Rose madder, brown madder
Eye color: ultramarine, transparent viridian, Payne’s grey
Hair color: rose madder, brown madder, Van Dyke brown, Payne’s grey, burnt umber, chromium oxide.

Jewel Tone and Rose Summer

Skin tone color: rose or brown madder, Carmen, magenta, thio
Eye color: grey-green, grey-blue, verde, ultramarine
Hair color: burnt umber, brown madder, rode madder, thio? violet

Twilight and Dusky Summer
Skin tone color: thio, thalo violet, parma violet, brown madder
Eye color: Van Dyke brown, chrome yellow, lemon yellow, alizarin crimson
Hair color: oxblood, rose madder, brown madder, Payne’s grey, Davy grey, thio, thalo violet.

The key to the Autumn colors is Tonation.

AUTUMN COLORS
All are blended with toners. There are no pure colors on the palette.

Chrome green: Avocado, Olive, Citron, Moss
Sap Green (blended with Chrome): Lettuce, Lime, Chartreuse, Lichen
Verde: Spruce, English ivy, Sea green, Eucalyptus, Pine needle
Chrome Yellow: Corn, Chrysanthemum, Squash, Banana, Gourd, Butter Amber, Chamois
Lemon Yellow (mixed with Umber): Straw, Leghorn, Topaz, Yellow sapphire, Lemon diamond
Persian Orange (toned with Sienna, Umber or Brown-Madder): Apricot
Transparent Veridian: Jade, Emerald, Peacock, Tourmaline, Aquamarine, Indian Turquoise
Hooker Green: Fir, Evergreen, Cypress, Watermelon rind
Sulphuric Yellow: Saffron, Mace, Mustard, Curry
Cadmium Yellow (light, medium and dark): Goldenrod, Old gold, Lantana, Calendula
Brown Madder: Rust, Cedar, Redwood, Sardonyx
Alizarin Crimson: Salmon, Red poppy, Red pepper
Purple: rarely, Royal Purple only
Oranges: Tangerine, Persimmon, Poppy, Copper, Rust
Cerulean Blue: Persian turquoise, Ming blue (looks green)
Vermilion: Peach, Quince, Coral, Red Poppy, Chinese red, Tomato, Flame
Indian Red: Brick, Egyptian, Cinnabar, Terra Cotta, Carnelian, Red amber
Red-Brown: Rust, Cedar, Redwood, Cocoa, Café au lait
Green-Browns: Tobacco, Oak, Black Walnut, Bronze
Black-browns: Chocolate, Mink, Sable

tonat med chromiumoxid – en klar mörkgrön

 

Metallic Autumn

Skin tone color:

raw and burnt umber and raw and burnt sienna toned with chromium oxide – dvs gröntonade umbror och siennor.

Eye color:

chrome green (avocado, oliv, mossa, citron),

transparent viridian (Jade, Emerald, Peacock, Tourmaline, Aquamarine, Indian Turquoise),

cerulean (Persian turquoise, Ming blue -looks green-)

Hair color: raw sienna, burnt sienna, raw umber, burnt umber.

 

Tawny Autumn

Skin tone color:

low value (=ljus) raw sienna,

raw umber,

chrome green, (avocado, oliv, mossa, citron),

sulphur yellow. (Saffron, Mace, Mustard, Curry) Skin may sometimes have freckles

Eye color,

green,(med mera?)

aquamarine,(av transparent veridian som även finns i Jade, Emerald, Peacock, Tourmaline Indian Turquoise)

sulphuric yellow, (Saffron, Mace, Mustard, Curry)

Persian gold

 

Hair color:

raw sienna,

burnt sienna,

chrome yellow, (Corn, Chrysanthemum, Squash, Banana, Gourd, Butter Amber, Chamois)

sulphuric yellow toned with umber. (Saffron, Mace, Mustard, Curry)

Bronze and Mellow Autumn

Skin tone color:

raw sienna,

chromium oxide,

Van Dyke brown,

vermilion
Eye color:

chromium oxide, (den klara gröna blandningen)

chrome and umber blend (grönt och brunt)

Persian gold,

Van Dyke brown
Hair color:

Van Dyke brown,

Persian orange

 

 

 

 

The Suzanne Caygill Theory

Author Comment
ineke

The Suzanne Caygill Theory

Lead [-]
Jun 5 09 7:12 PMLight Summer
Tags : NoneThe Suzanne Caygill book ”Color the Essence of you” is really interesting.
She saw human beings as a whole: color, form and character. This is, amongst many other things, what she wroteAll living forms in the animal and floral worlds seem part of the intricate weaving of the colourful tapestry of the universe. As tiny segments of the great design created by the Master Weaver, the violet is colored for its delicacy; the velvety texture of the pansy is related to its deep jewel tones, while the tint of the orchid is expressive of its fluted edges. You can say with certainty:” This is the leaf, and this is the flower that belongs with it. The relationship is perfect and the colors are right!” Can we imagine challenging Nature’s magnificent organization of design and color by remarking of a magnolia, ”The leaves aren’t the right color,” or of the calla lily, ”It needs to be dabbed up and changed because it doesn’t go with the stem?” Surely no one would think to take such a position.If we recognize that everything in the organization of the universe is authentic and correct, then we pose the question, ”Does not this organization apply also to human beings?” It seems reasonable to assume that each human being has an individualized design, color, and form that is suitable to his or her intrinsic value and intent.There is a whole lot more information, but I think I will start with the description and photo examples of the four seasons. Each season is subdivided. She does not explain how or why, which a flaw of the book, in my opinion, is.
Later on in another chapter there are some specific guidelines for specific types.
Anyhow, here is the first: Spring.
Remember that Suzanne was an artist, and that she determined 101 colors by using her paints.SPRINGThe key to the colors of Spring is Clarity.

The coloring of the feminine Spring type has all the golden radiance of a spring day. She generally has blue eyes, sparkling blue, as clear and vived as the sky on a May morning; eyes may be blue green, baby blue, green blue, blue grey or even brown. If the eyes are brown, she is the robin type. Typically, she has golden hair, yellow-gold, yellow-brown chestnut, but usually the gold lights in her hair override every other impression. The skin is usually ivory or peach in tone.

The face is generally rounded – rounded cheeks, eyes, nose, and chin – or it may be heart shaped with pointed chin. Usually there are indentations under high cheek bones, and often dimples. The face may express piquancy and animation even in sleep. Contours of the body are also molded and rounded, with the exception of the Early Spring type (with flaxen hair), who may be tall and slender. Those who are slender are not angular. Apparel and designs they can wear may allow for gathers, ruffles and shirrings to create natural rounded effects most characteristic of Spring expression.

I’ll skip the personality stuff. It’s a lot to type and I want to concentrate on the coloring/shaping.

 

There seem to be four Early Springs:

The Violet, decorous

The Fruit Blossom, willowy

The Water Lily, fresh

The Tulip, vivacious

 

There are four Golden Springs:

The Quince Blossom, bonny

The Tea Rose, comely

The talisman Rose, enchanting

The Golden Rose, glorious

 

There are four Floral Springs:

The Wild Rose, ingenious

The Cosmos, felicitous

The Lupin, artistic

The wild Flower, buoyant

 

There are four Vital Springs:

Provincial Spring, adorable

Pixie Spring, vivacious

Vital Spring, enthusiastic

Vital Spring, frolicsome

The Spring type responds to high, vivid colors: crimson, yellow, greens as bright as the leaves in new growth; blues as clear as the sky after an April shower. All colors should be kept clear and bright to express gaiety, warmth, animation. To be avoided are all the blue-reds and dark reds, shocking pink and burgundy.

I believe the colors lists are somewhere else in the library, so I won’t type them again.

Ornamentation.
There are two lines, used in styling, that are expressive of Spring:

Buoyant
Rounded or rolled as in circles, half circles, and petal shapes like the fluted, frilly edges of jonquils.

Piquant
Semi-curve with a point (for small and/or petite only).

Spring effects

Spring is the one type who can wear a frill and be chic, a bouquet on her coat, a hat ornamented with flowers in profusion or of tulle. If she wears prints, they should be floral, daisies, birds, butterflies – expressing animation, perkiness. A sequined scarf may be tied jauntily around the neck. She can project with charm and whimsy such looks as: David Copperfield, Lord Fauntleroy, little prince, Peter Pan, jockey, cheer leader, majorette.

Jewelry-Metals
Pale yellow-gold settings for jewellery will pick up the highlights of the Spring personality, accenting the gold tones of her hair and skin. The hair should be accented with its own metallic quality. This may be verified by noting the effect of bronze or copper against the hair. Bronze, copper, silver or platinum are rarely completely at home on the Spring type, although the darker tone of gold in the hair, the more it is possible to use oxidized gold or green-gold.
Jewelry should be light, tinkly, filigree, openwork; nothing heavy or bizarre to detract from Spring’s charm.
Stones used may be: aquamarine, opal, turquoise, coral, zircon, moonstone, diamonds (if you sparkle), emerald, yellow sapphire, yellow topaz.

Lipsticks: use a clear red and orange-red. The Spring type nhever wears blue-red or dark red lipsticks.

Perfumes: Perfumes should be emanate from the body, being light, airy, fresh, having the fragrance of ferns, grasses and flowers.

Historical influences: The lines and rhythms of designs in these periods and styles seem to complement the Spring type. After becoming acquainted with them in some detail, you may find an affinity with several which may ultimately suggest the type of home architecture and furnishing, personal fashion adaptation and ornamentation most appealing and expressive of you.
Louis XV, Louis XV1, French Provincial, Country English, Early American, Quaker, Pennsylvania Dutch, Colonial.

Focal Points of the Personality: Selecting from the myriads of design offered by both fashion couturiers and manufactures, the apparel that would be expressive of the Spring personality should have specific focalization which creates and supports the individual at her best. As her attire does affect her in subtle ways, so it is also nonverbal communication. Focalizing her design to express a facet of personality in a continuing manner helps her to become more effective and interesting. The following words include some of the expressions native to most Spring types: animation, blithesomeness, sprightliness, perkiness, sauciness, vivacity, effervescence, piquancy, crispness, lightness, jauntiness, flirtatiousness, radiance, frivolity, gaiety.

The antonyms of these positive words will define the negative tendencies to avoid – consult several different dictionaries.

Special Focalizers

Early Spring:
Sheer fabrics, organdie, sheer tissue fabrics, watery silks, light hues, fluid lines, billowy effects, fragile textures, net, filigree, ornamentation. Green golds, Florentine and light golds.

Golden Spring:
Round lines, polka dots, bubbles, smooth surface fabrics, prints with open-face flowers, confetti, with frivolous effects in cloths and jewelry, fabrics shirred, gathered or smocked.
Floral Spring:
Pique, taffeta, satin, twills, cotton fabrics, ruffles, eyelet embroidery, active or floral prints, gold scroll jewelry, transparent stones, bells, cottons, ginghams, gabardine, dotted Swiss.

Vital Spring:
Bright colors, spring greens, crisp white, bright reds, effects from tin soldiers, French gendarmes and bellboys, vests, gold buttons, pleats, prints with frisky flowers, décolleté dresses, bright, shiny gold, ornamentation.
SUMMER
The woman whose coloring blends with summer flower gardens is the most feminine and luxuriously lovely of all women. She is usually a perfect example of the soft summer scene. The muted shades of the grey-blue summer sky, the azure water, the iris and rose, all identify with pastels. She usually has slightly pink tones in her skin, although the skin may be rose or a light peach. There is an almost indefinable overtone tinting the entire coloring, as though lightly brushed with a lavender wash, the same gentle haze which subdues the summer scene.
She usually has ash blonde, greyish brown, light brown or grey hair, with misty blue, grey-blue or powdery-blue eyes; sometimes the eyes are grey-green, bottle green or brown. If they are brown, they are the ”brown velvet” type. She may be the Irish type, with dark brown or black hair, blue eyes and pink skin.

The Summer type is recognized by her relaxed mannerisms, her soft-spoken voice. Seldom, if ever, do we find anyone with the pastel coloring of a Summer type who does not have the soft, calm, musical voice that goes with it. Usually the fingers are tapered, long and slender. The movements of the hands are delicate and graceful with no awkwardness. Her step is light and her walk graceful. She is willowy with a fluid motion, and seems to float or glide.
The Princess, exquisite

The Dogwood, opalescent

The Azela, gracious

The Orchid, feminine
The Orchid, elegant

The Rose, symphonic

The Hydrangea, romantic

The Violet, intuitive

The Showy Lady Slipper, picturesque

The Delphinium, delightful

The Orchid, endearing

The Azalea, charming

Ornamentation Summer lines:
the Summer line used in styling is the S-curve, the line of
Grace. It is the most feminine and beautiful of lines, expressing softness, fluidity and
elegance. It may be seen in trailing roses, the unfurling of a rose petal, wisteria, the shape
of lilies of the valley and cantebury bells.
Summer effects:
Fabric and textiles are very important to the Summer types. She wears crepe de chine,
velvet, duvetyn, soft wools, batiste, lawn, net, taffeta, chiffon, lace and
eyelet embroidery. Summer must be careful not to permit her clothes to mask her personality. She should avoid appearing either bland or heavily laden. She may wear deep red roses, feathers (ostrich), veiling or hats. She wears bows better than any other type (try a hat made entirely of bows). She may use iridescent beading, wear ornaments in her hair – a bird in flight. She may wear cameos, combs, bands of flowers binding her hair, a butterfly. However, any ornamentation should have movement, swirl.
Flowers, typical of the Summer personality are those which cascade or grow on long stems: delphinium, larkspur, petunia, wisteria, fuchsia, hollyhock, lilies of the valley, etc.
These may be used in prints.

Jewelry – metals:
The best metal background is silver, platinum or very soft rose gold. The Summer type is easily overdone in costume jewelry, and any attempt to look dramatic or bizarre will distort her most precious quality – fragility.
Summer can wear clusters of small stones. They should not appear heavy; use fragile, fanciful designs, stones which glow rather than sparkle.
Avoid very bright shining gold trinkets, solid clunky jewelry. Daintiness is paramount. Using large pins, open work or filigree is preferable. Use link bracelets rather than heavy gold bands. Tiny stones set in clusters, or anything that curls, twists or is braided is appropriate. Iridescent stones are good. Pearls are especially good.
Stones used may be: amethyst, garnet, pearl, opal, zircon, aquamarine, moonstone, pink sapphire, turquoise, tourmaline (both blue-greens and pale to bright pinks), rose quartz. Diamonds are not flattering: they are too brilliant.
Lipsticks: use blue-red over dark red for best results.

Perfumes: perfume should appear to waft after this type. It should never be used lavishly enough to be obtrusive: rather use perfume that lingers.

Historical influences: the lines and rhythms of design in these periods and styles seem to complement the Summer type. After becoming acquainted with them in some detail, you may find an affinity with several which may ultimately suggest the type of home architecture and furnishings, personal fashion adaptation and ornamentation most appealing and expressive of you.
Grecian, Roman, adapted Victorian, turn of the Century, Directoire, Empire, Delicate French periods – Louis XIV, XV, XVI, Queen Anne, Early Georgian (George I), Flemish.
Focal Points of the Personality: Selecting from the myriads of design offered by both fashion couturiers and manufactures, the apparel that would be expressive of the Summer personality should have specific focalization which creates and supports the individual at her best. As her attire does affect her in subtle ways, so it is also nonverbal communication. Focalizing her design to express a facet of personality in a continuing manner helps her to become more effective and interesting. The following words include some of the expressions native to most Summer types:
Femininity, exquisiteness, delicacy, fragility, etherealness, luxuriousness, gracefulness, sweetness, softness, daintiness, refinement.
The antonyms of these positive words will define the negative tendencies to avoid – consult several different dictionaries.

Special Focalizers

Iridescent Summer
Cameos, opals, translucent fabrics, Grecian effects, chiffons, sheer laces, suedes, broadcloth, duvetyn, pearls, iridescent beading, fanciful designs, bugle beads, shells, silver, platinum, white gold, moonstones, pink sapphires, pink tourmalines.

Jewel Tone and Rose Summer
Red roses, black lace, fans, amethysts, sapphires, rubies, emeralds, velvets, brocades, dark furs, rose gold and antique aquamarine.

Twilight and Dusky Summer
Velvets, satins, cascading curls, ostrich feathers, sapphires, rubies, amethysts.

The key to the harmony of Summer is Mutation.
AUTUMN
Very different colors characterize the pigmentations of women related to Autumn. Their colors are brushed with bronze. Skin coloring range from café au lait and amber to oxidized gold or sienna, a soft yellowish brown. Some skin may be ivory, cream or peach in tone. Redheads (there are more than 250 shadings) are obviously Autumn types, joined by those whose hair is metallic blonde, or brown with reddish or orange highlights (the burnt sienna and burnt umber hues). There is some brown hair that is not rust in appearance, but has copper colored overtones. The eyes may be green, grey-green, yellow-green, topaz, hazel, olive, blue-green, brown with red flecks. Seldom if ever are the eyes a true blue.

There are three rather distinct Autumn types:

Metallic Autumn
Metallic Autumn is the clear, richly toned redhead, typifying the beginning of the Autumn season when the colors first turn to brilliance. The hair maybe coppery, or oxidized gold with red highlights.

Tawny Autumn:
Tawny Autumn may have auburn, dark red or mahogany shades in the hair, with brown skin tones. She maybe the pert, freckeled outdoor type. The skin may be white, bronze or peach.

Bronze and Mellow Autumn:
This Autumn type usually has bronze skin with brown hair, or brown skin with brown hair. Some women in this category have ruddy complexion.
Just as the mood of the Autumn season is forceful, Autumn women are energetic; sure in their movements, solid and firm of step, or quick and wiry. Others maybe loose-joined, long legged, angular and graceful. The features are fairly strong and definite. The head is usually large in proportion to the body, and the chin is firm. The usually strong face will preclude any attempt on the part of an Autumn woman to appear ”pretty”. If she is pretty, this quality should not be emphasized, since it will not dramatize her personality. She should strive rather for an appearance of smartness and chic.
The Autumn woman usually has a decisive, rather clipped manner of speech; the voice may tend toward brusqueness.
Titian Autumn, zestful

Copper Autumn, adventuresome

Auburn Autumn, lucious

Red Bronze, glowing

 

Tawny Autumn, Topaz, nonchalant

Bronze Autumn, Tapestry, intriguing

Bronze Autumn, Pixie, exuberant

Mellow Autumn, ebullient

Bronze Autumn, magnetic

Bronze Autumn, quixotic

Pewter Autumn, Dashing

Ornamentation Autumn lines
Swiftness of line should characterize styling for Autumn personalities. Points, as in the contours of a maple leaf, a palm frond, the flower of an exotic bird of paradise, an arrow, a quill, symbolize the type of dramatic thrust.

Autumn effects
The colourings and physical features of the Autumn type demand opulent fabrics and heavy, luxurious ornamentation. Grained and mottled textures are best, like natural leathers, or the look of rumpled grasses and leaves fallen to the ground. Strong and sometimes flamboyant designs are the most becoming. Chinese combinations are especially good. Rich fabrics like velvet, brocade and lame are enhancing. It is possible to use lace or chiffon, but with restraint, and in the right colors. Café au lait and deep cocoa colored lace would be appropriate.
If prints are worn, they should be something analogous to Autumn – leaf designs, woodsy effects, corn, geometric designs of distinction, odd and unusuall effects; no flower prints unless very stylized. Paisley and Persian prints are good; paisley shot with metallic is excellent. Flowers are generally not becoming to her. If worn, they should be of definite design, bronze or green orchids, shaggy chrysanthemums.

Jewelry – Metals
Ornamental jewelry is really a motif for the Autumn type, and can be used as lavishly as she may desire, as long as it is well-matched. She is usually lost without some jewelry. It should be of solid, heavy design. No link bracelets; rather use solid, wide gold bands. Jewelry may be heavy Oriental (Chinese is out of place on any other type),or of a design that is bizarre. It may be jangly. Strive for jewelry that is as unusual as possible, earrings and pins that are exotic: coins. Scarabs, daggers. Autumn may user necklaces of many strands, as many as six; one little strand of pearls would be out of character. Amber jewelry is good. She might utilize old amber beads by stringing alternately with gold links, which will permit the use of gold earrings. She may use Congo belts, girdles, heavy rope metallic with fringed ends, saddle-like belts, gold chains as belts. Metals alone are really better than when used with stones; the use of plain colors with jewelry as ornamentation is excellent. Gold is better than silver; silver is possible if the hair is grey, but gold should be combined with it.
Stones used may be:
Jade, agate, topaz, yellow sapphire, amber, dark or clear, carnelian, sardonyx, smoky quartz, turquoise, opal. Do not wear diamonds; they are tiring to the skin.

Lipsticks: orange and clear reds. Avoid blue-reds.

Perfumes: animal-fixative perfumes that cling to the body should be worn.

Historical influences: the lines and rhythms of design in these periods and styles seem to complement the Autumn type. After becoming acquainted with them in some detail, you may find an affinity with several which may ultimately suggest the type of home architecture and furnishings, personal fashion adaptation and ornamentation most appealing and expressive of you.
Egyptian, Byzantine, Italian Renaissance, English 18th Century, Modern with Empire or Traditional, Elizabethan, Chinese Modern, done with restraint.
Focal Points of the Personality: Selecting from the myriads of design offered by both fashion couturiers and manufactures, the apparel that would be expressive of the Autumn personality should have specific focalization which creates and supports the individual at her best. As her attire does affect her in subtle ways, so it is also nonverbal communication. Focalizing her design to express a facet of personality in a continuing manner helps her to become more effective and interesting. The following words include some of the expressions native to most Autumn types.
Dramatic, resplendent, energetic, bizarre, coppery, dynamic, colourful, gypsy-like, brilliant, warmth, woodsy, vital, dashing, richness, spicy.

The antonyms of these positive words will define the negative tendencies to avoid – consult several different dictionaries.

Special Focalizers
Metallic Autumn
Hand-woven fabrics, grained and nubby fabrics, mixtures, metallics, lames, brocades, tweeds, tassels, fringe, slave bracelets, Congo belts, metallic circlets, amber, sardonyx, jade, carnelian, golds, copper, oxidized gold.

Tawny Autumn
Raffia, chamois, mutton-fat, jade, tweeds, chains, coins, embroideries, paisleys, tapestries, jerkins.

Bronze and Mellow Autumn
Brown velvet, dark furs, heavy ornamentation, gold medallions, chatelaines. Gold wristlets, klarisiris, amber, smoky topaz, lemon diamonds, emeralds.
WINTER
Personalities related to Winter coloring are like a winter scene, extreme in expression. They are striking in appearance and vivid in contrasts. Hair may be black as raven’s wing, or a black walnut that gives the impression of being black, or it may be the rare blue-black hair. Winter types with the grey or white hair are those who have lost their pigmentation between twenty and thirty years of age. Their hair may be iron-grey, steel-grey, pewter, silver, oyster white.
The classic Winter skin is usually connoted as olive, meaning there is grey-yellow or green in the skin. Olive shadings range from light to dark. Skin may also seem to be nearly white, with a look of alabaster, magnolia, candlelight, beige, or champagne. More vivid Winters may even have a peach skin.
Eyes of the Winter type may appear black with yellow-green or light gold or Persian gold highlights, or sometimes brilliant orange flecks. These eyes appear in both Latin and Oriental types most often, but are also found with lighter skins. They may also be a pine needle green, grey-green, pale green, light blue-green as in the color of robin’s eggs, or deep evergreens, lapis blue or navy, pale misty blues, and onyx which has flecks of green, bronze or yellow-green. Sometimes the deep blue eyes turn to violet with excitement.

As a generalization, those who have strong contrasts in coloration also have a tendency to be lean, fine grained, having high cheekbones, narrow faces, and convex profiles. Their features are even and often chiselled in appearance. Winter women have a graceful carriage and a commanding air. Their physiques are well-balanced, giving a precise definition of line. Winter types of themselves create a pattern, just as one tree or one leaf in winter creates a pattern by itself.

Classic and Soft Winter

Skin tone color: Davey’s grey, Payne’s grey, lemon-yellow, sap-green, chromium oxide
Eye color: chrome yellow, chrome green, Payne’s grey, transparent viridian
Hair color: lamp black, Chinese black, umber, thio violet.

Soft Winter, intuitive

Classic Winter, enigmatic

Classic Winter, beautiful

Classic Winter, alluring
Patrician Winter
Skin tone color: chromium oxide and white, carmine, magenta
Eye color: Payne’s or Davey grey
Hair color: white, chromium oxide, thio violet, ultramarine blue

Patrician Winter, poised

Patrician Winter, Iron Grey, vivacious

Patrician Winter, Silver, sparkling
Patrician Winter, Silver, serene

Patrician Winter, Platinum, luminous
Dynamic Winter

Skin tone color: cadmium red, chromium oxide, vermilion, alizarin crimson
Eye color: burnt umber, chrome green
Hair color, grey-black, green-black, blue-black

Dynamic Winter, expressive

Dynamic Winter, distingué

Dynamic Winter, prismatic

Dynamic Winter, refined
Exotic Winter

Skin tone color: cadmium red, chromium oxide, vermilion, alizarin crimson
Eye color: chrome green, chromium oxide
Hair color: grey-black, green-black, blue-black.

Exotic Winter, scintillatting

Exotic Winter, urbane

Exotic Winter, smooth
Ornamentation Winter lines

Smooth, undulating lines are most flattering. They are seen in such rhythms as rolling hills, weeping willows, waterfalls, interpreted in graceful drapery, mantles, togas, capes, monk’s robes.
Winter effects

Like great ballerinas against a black velvet backdrop with lines silhouetted with pure and simple patterns, persons whose features and forms are chiselled and lean gain attention by the stillness of their beauty. The Winter type should remember to use only one color accent at a time, no complementary harmony. Winter styling demonstrates the use and power of neutrals. They dramatize the strength of the person’s own contrasts. Deep grey’s, combinations of two or three grey’s, black and white, all are excellent choices for the women of this season – as is the cold, neutral grey-green of certain winter skies. Chalk white is stunning. Winter is the only type who wears a turban with little or no hair showing. But even the Winter should wear white only when she is rested.
Prints of unique design are handsome on her. A marble effect in black and white print would be reminiscent of the filigree of shadows on snow. Black and white checks with crisp white collars pick up the lights in grey hair. Please note that grey hair must be meticulously cared for, exquisitely groomed and rather extremely styled. Any prints the Winter wears should be closely related to the person. Many abstract and indefinite prints can be effective. Generally, the Winter choosing prints would do well to have a tongue-in-cheek approach to choosing them. Usually, the Winter does not wear flowered prints. Sportswear should be in vivid colors. In casual clothes, Winter may wear stripes; however, it is best to limit the stripes to two colors only, such as red and white, green and white, black and white, black and green, red and black. Tunics over pants are becoming if the hips are slender. Hoods are good, and bandanas. In housedresses, she should be extreme and use vibrant color combinations, and splashes of dots and checks.
Line and ampleness of design are important for a Winter. She can never look skimpy. In buying a dress, if it seems to say ”I can not be worn by the average person” it is then distinctive enough for the Winter type. While intense and vivid colors are magnificent on the Winter, if lighter shades are used they should be ice values of the color. Ice-blue or ice-green, for instance, are especially effective in satin or textures that glow like a frosty night. For evening, nothing is more dramatically beautiful on the Winter person than frosted white, with crystal or iridescent beading, or icicle-like fringe, or iced white that glistens with metal threads. She must use them lavishly, however, and luxuriously. Ice-green satin is also beautiful for evening, or midnight-blue velvet. The Winter should use electric blue sparingly. Electric blue studded with rhinestones would be interesting and lovely. Nature never uses electric blue at any other season of the year. If the Winter type desires to be very dignified, she may wear navy-blue with royal-purple. If the Winter has a white skin and black hair, she may use a brilliant yellow, but not other wise.
If she wears roses, they must be deep, vivid red roses, large and single, preferably velvet, with sufficient intensity for her dramatic coloring.
All clothing for the Winter type should be extremely refined in line and degree of workmanship.
Other season types move into Winter expression as their hair turns grey or white, and they find they can express themselves more effectively by adopting dramatic styling. For instance, when a Summer type with pink and white skin become white haired and continues to wear soft blues, pink, pastel lavenders, the result may not be as chic as a change to the rich purplish blues and deep lavenders so flattering to Winter. She might also employ pearl grey with deep magenta as an accent, or bottle green with crisp white.

Jewelry – Metals
Jewelry should be large, smooth, simple and dramatic, never fussy, gadgety or dinky, such as charm bracelets, bobbing necklace or moving lapel pins. The effect should be one of coolness; still jewelry should stay put and be well-defined in line. The metal should be silver and, if possible, the stones should be precious. Clear-cut sparkling stones are best, finely cut diamonds, very small diamond earrings – one very fine piece of jewelry is enough.
Sones used may be: diamonds, crystal, jet, zircon, sapphires, rubies, turquoise, emeralds, jade, pearls, black pearl, and rhinestones.

Lipsticks: choice of lipstick will depend upon color being worn.

Perfumes: nonfloral. Use a perfume of great distinction.

Historical influences: the lines and rhythms of design in these periods and styles seem to complement the Winter type. After becoming acquainted with them in some detail, you may find an affinity with several which may ultimately suggest the type of home architecture and furnishings, personal fashion adaptation and ornamentation most appealing and expressive of you.
Moorish (Exotic Winter), Imperial Russia (Dynamic Winter), Byzantine (Exotic Winter), Persian (Soft Winter), East Indian (Soft and Exotic Winters), Empire (Classic and Soft Winters), Victorian (when done in a tongue-in-cheek, playful manner), Spanish Basque (Exotic Winter), Grecian (Classic Winter), Roman (Classic Winter), Japanese (Soft Winter), Mandarin Chinese (Soft and Exotic Winters), Cromwellian – The Puritan Influence (Pixie), Edwardian (Soft Winter).
Focal Points of the Personality: Selecting from the myriads of design offered by both fashion couturiers and manufactures, the apparel that would be expressive of the Winter personality should have specific focalization which creates and supports the individual at her best. As her attire does affect her in subtle ways, so it is also nonverbal communication. Focalizing her design to express a facet of personality in a continuing manner helps her to become more effective and interesting. The following words include some of the expressions native to most Winter personalities.
Stately (in walk, line, dress), mysterious, striking, sophisticated, serene, regal, dignified, dramatic, sparkling, luxurious, urbane, distinguished, exciting, elegant, crystalline, suave.
The antonyms of these positive words will define the negative tendencies to avoid – consult several different dictionaries.
Special Focalizers

Classic Winter
Silver, crystal, jet, black onyx, black velvet, diamonds, brilliants, sapphires, lustrous fabrics, alaskine, white mink or Kohlinor, black and white checks of plaids, chiffon, chalk white linen and leather, bold stripes, buckles, abstract designs.

Soft Winter
Fragile lace, pale ice-blue and ice-green in wools, cashmere, rabbit’s hair, angora, eiderdown, white feathers, white net, chiffon, white mink, crystals, bugle beads, icicle fringe, silver filigree, metallic meshes, fabrics shot with silver, Palestinian, nomadic designs.

Dynamic Winter
Brilliant colors, white coral, crystal, emeralds, diamonds, rubies, chandelier earrings, black leather, monkey fur, pony, black mink, black seal, silver, platinum, white gold, moonstones, white jade, imperial jade, alabaster, sleek smooth fabrics, glossy textures, suede finishes, white angora.

Exotic Winter
Period adaptations, Persian, Algerian, Egyptian, East-Indian, Russian, Oriental jewelry, Turkish costumes, mosaic designs, oblique patterns, bizarre jewelry, Polynesian designs, saris, sarongs.

The key to the Winter palette is Contrast.

WINTER COLORS
Pure pigments or darkened with lamp black. Either deep, vibrant and rich or icy pale and cool. Few winters wear middle-value colors well.

Black: Blue-black, Green-black, Black walnut, Black olive
Black to white: Oxford, Lead, Iron, Platinum
Payne’s Gray: Steel, Gunmetal, Slate, Smoke, Silver
Davey Gray: Smoke, Ash, Dove, Pearl
Clear Greens: Evergreen, Fir, Pine Needle, Verde
Blue-Greens: Veridian, Blue Spruce, Eucalyptus, Emerald, Crème de Menthe, Mint, Peacock, Peppermint, Ice
Cobalt (pure): Azure, Royal, Ice, Prussian, Persian
Scarlet Lake: Strawberry, Cherry, Scarlet, Poinsettia,
Indian Red: Rococo, Pompeii, Cranberry, Egyptian, Bloodstone
Vermilion: Flame, Chinese lacquer, Tomato, Poppy
Carmine: French, American Beauty, Ruby, Maraschino cherry
Indigo (dark and purplish): Blackberry, Blueberry, Midnight, Ice, Cerulean (green cast)
Thalo (vivid and slightly purple): Electric, Iridescent
Purples: Thio, Thalo, Eggplant, Thistle, Myrtle, Fuchsia, Plum, Royal
Yellow: Ivory, French vanilla, Lemon, Champagne, Cup of gold, Persian (orange yellow)
Orange: Persian, Tangerine
Magenta: Cyclamen

Suzanne Caygill’s Neutrals
[originally posted by Juli]

These include, as you expect, beige, brown, gray, navy, black and white; and certain greens and reds that can be used as neutrals by people with certain colorations. Again, these are based on paint pigments.

Raw Umber (dark, dusky brown) the basis for light, yellow brown, or medium brown hair, paler tints of flaxen hair. Shadings include yellow, almond, buff, pecan, caramel, linen, honey, oak. Used by Springs.

Burnt Umber (reddish brown) the basis for sand, gray-beige. Tones include stone, black walnut, ionized teakwoods. Used by some Springs and some Autumns.

Raw Sienna (yellowish brown) tones of wheat, amber, yellow topaz, brass, chamois. Used by some Autumns.

Burnt Sienna the basis for terra cotta, brick, carnelian, and redwood. Used by Autumns.

Van Dyke Brown Tones range from smoke and otter to bittersweet chocolate and Eastern mink. Used by some Springs, some Autumns and a few Winters. When mixed with rose or blue for rose-beige, fawn brown, & taupe, it can be used by Summers.

Davey’s Gray (yellow-gray) basis for dove, pearl, silver-gray, ash. Used by Summers, platinum blond Springs, and Winters with pewter toned hair.

Payne’s Gray (blue-gray) basis for gunmetal, steel, lead, slate. Used by Winters and some Summers including those with pink skin tone.

Black- Lamp black with a flat finish used by Winters. Chinese Black (lustre finish). Used by Winters with an olive or white skin tone, Springs with light lustrous skin, and Summers when skin is pale and lines are soft and expression delicate.

Greens form a background for most scenes in nature and Ms. Caygill includes them as neutrals. Everyone has some shade of green they can wear. She included the major types of green pigment.

Sap Green clearest of green pigments usually appearing in early Spring. Lettuce, pea pods, apple green. Only effective on Springs.

Verde Green a green of lower key, like leaves of the English ivy and grape, spruce, palm, moss, lichen, pine. Used by Summers; Autumns when mixed with other greens.

Chrome Green shadings of olive, spinach, asparagus, pickle (dill), sage. Used by Autumn and occasionally by Spring when the skin has very little yellow.

Hooker Green as in magnolia leaves, watermelon rind, fir, huckleberry. Used by Winter and sometimes Spring.

Transparent Veridian becoming to all types. Hues include aqua, aquamarine, tourmaline, bottle green. Spring wears the colors clear, Summer wears them muted, Autumn wears them toned and can add turquoise and peacock, Winter wears the pure pigment.

Other colors that can be used as neutrals

Indigo Blackberry, blueberry, midnight blue, navy, cadet blue, slate. Used by some Springs, Summers and Winters who can add cobalt.

Red- Used by Summer and Winter when skin is pale and hair is white or taupe. Burgundy, mulberry, cranberry, grape or plum in their darker values may be used in place of black or brown.

White- There are few whites that do not have some influence from another color. Stark white can only be worn by those who are very beautiful or very dramatic. The rest of us would use one of the following:

Oyster White – tinged with raw umber for Spring and Autumn
Pearl – tinged with pink, carmine or rose madder for Summer
Green White – tinged with lemon yellow for Autumn
Blue White – tinged with pearl gray or any blue pigment for Winter
Ivory White – tinged with chrome yellow for Spring
Gray White – tinged with middle-value gray for Winter
Chalk White – Winter

Aponi’s notes:
I actually have a lot of these colors so I thought I’d make the color chart.
You can see how different the tones are when comparing & the list gives the seasonal designations for each.

Browns
(Note: Raw Umber, Burnt Umber, Raw Sienna & Burnt Sienna are all warm unsaturated colors known as Earths & you’ll notice they are only for Springs & Autumns).
Raw Umber is deep yellow based.
Burnt Umber is red-orange based.
Raw Sienna is also deep yellow based but more towards yellow than Raw Umber.
Burnt Sienna is orange based.
Van Dyke Brown is a ‘cooler’ toned brown that is a mix of transparent red & black.

Grays & Black
Davey’s Gray is a yellowish gray.
Payne’s Gray is a very dark bluish gray.
Lamp Black (aka Carbon Black) is a slightly bluish black.
Charcoal is a neutral blackish-gray.

Greens
Hooker’s Green is a rich middle green.
Viridian is a blued green.
Sap Green is a deep yellow green.
Chromium Oxide (or Chrome Green) is a yellow-green.
Terre Verde (or Earth Green) is an unsaturated yellow-green.
There are other Verdes, but this is one of two I have & seems to go with the colors she mentions for it.

Blues
Indigo tones are between blue & violet.
Prussian Blue is a very dark shade of blue.
Manganese Blue has some green in it.
Cobalt Blue is a rich blue and can be mixed using ultramarine:  & cyan: .

Reds
The reds are all deep & cool & are only listed as being possible replacements for browns & blacks as neutrals in some Summer & Winter palettes.

Whites
The whites I have are are plain, grayed, silvered, pearl & warm; and in that order.

Typecasting: your own color harmony.

In analyzing your pigmentation in eyes, skin and hair for your own color harmony, you will need the artist’s approach and some basic understanding of color pigments.
As you noted in the color descriptions through the seasons, it seemed most authentic and helpful to use actual terms designating pure color, which may be found in tubes in any art store. If you are to begin making use of this color theory, you are encouraged to seek personal acquaintance with color. Probably you are already familiar with simple color terms: hue, a basic color classified as red, blue, green, etc.; tints, colors diluted with white; tones, colors modified with black. Toners, not described professionally as hues, are the siennas and umbers.
On the basic color spectrum of red/orange/yellow/green/blue/violet, the first three are referred to as the warm colors, the latter three as the cool colors.

It is also necessary to understand a little about color nomenclature. For instance, in the descriptive chapters of the four seasons, you became sufficiently acquainted with the pigments to recognize raw sienna as yellowish brown, which after roasting in a furnace becomes burnt sienna; or the tone of raw umber as a dark, dusky brown pigment, which after heating becomes the reddish brown of burnt umber; or to identify what is technically called Payne’s grey as a blue-grey, and Davey grey as a yellow-grey. All of this will enrich your color appreciation and your ability in its use.

In the listings of colors under the pigments for Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, you found that the words chosen were those in common usage and known to all. Usually the names were taken from flowers, fruits, vegetables, or from the more usual oxides, minerals and stones. These may be observed and compared as each natural source is studied. In describing a gamut of colors for the various seasonal types, you may have found some words repeated, for there are certain tints and tones, especially of fruits and vegetables, which are flattering to a number of types within two or more of the seasons.

Selecting your coloration.

The pigments in Caucasian coloring are as follows:
Red: cadmium, alizarin crimson, vermilion, Carmen, magenta, geranium lake, crimson lake, rose madder, Indian red, English red.

Yellow: lemon, chrome (light, medium, dark), sulphuric oxide, cadmium, Persian gold, Persian orange.

Green: sap, chrome, hooker, transparent viridian.

Purple: thio, thalo, Parma.

Blue: ultramarine, cobalt, indigo, thalo (strongest of all blues), cerulean.

Grey: Payne’s grey (blue-grey), Davey (yellow-grey).

Brown: Van Dyke brown, brown madder.

In selecting your personal coloration, we begin with the definition of the pigmentation of your eyes.
In identifying the colors in your eyes, select the hues which are dominant and which give the lightest and darkest intensities to your skin and hair. With dark eyes, it is necessary to move into strong light to be able to pick up the flecks.
The color of your eyes will appear differently with the reflections of the colors you wear. They will also be brighten and darken with enthusiasm, excitement, and spurts of energy throughout phases of your life. The color of eyes is a great thermometer of emotional well-being.

The color of your eyes determines the dominant or primary color for use in your wardrobe.

Blue eyes
The rarest of all eye coloring is a clear French blue, Wedgewood or Delft blue that comes from the pigment ultramarine or cobalt. Our experiments prove that there is only about one pair of these blue eyes in a thousand; that almost all eyes called blue are actually the blue-green of the aquamarine stone or the green-blue of the tourmaline stone. As the human eye cannot easily isolate two blues from each other, you must be sure that the range of monochromatic blues to be blended with the eyes in their styling must be accurate, and graded in such a way that they do not weaken the expression.

Brown eyes
Brown eyes will have lemon-yellow or chrome, Persian orange, sulphuric-yellow and cadmium highlights. It is not unusual to find orange, rust, amber, saffron in the eyes otherwise assumed brown.

Green eyes
The wide variety of eyes referred to as hazel (a term denoting lack of information or color understanding) are a form of one or another of the pigments of green and the combinations of them:
Verde (light value looking somewhat dusty, watery or misty)
Transparent viridian (looks bluish – the coloring of blue spruce, peacock and tourmaline in all of its shadings).
Cerulean (a blue pigment that looks green)
Hooker green
Sap green
Citrome

Other blends of green:
Grey-green (blended to eucalyptus)
Sea-green (watery green)
Aquamarine (tending toward the green)

Dark green eyes often look black or brown until they are analyzed. This coloring can look like Chinese bronze, low-key, yellow-greens that come from the chrome and which blend all the way up the tonal scale to absinthe and champagne. With reference to these colors, many unsophisticated tastes will object because they are not pretty colors, but with more understanding of the beauty of the ancient Oriental screens, the bronze urns, the shadings in brass, the colors can be interesting and effective on the man or woman whose eyes can accept these subtle tones.

Feminine Skin Tone

It is suggested that you match the skin on your inner arm, as it is not subject to the emotions, windburn, sunburn, cosmetics, and does not show co clearly any discoloration from strain, weakness or jaundice. At certain times coloring will be more sensitized, as after an anaesthetic or surgery. Women who are pregnant will have more color and radiance than normally and, therefore, the skin tone should be matched with more vibrancy than normal.
The skin tone can be worn in all tints and tones. Selections of shadings should emphasize the highlights, such as defining the intensity of color in the peach or apricot skin, or lack of color in the olive skin, in order to dramatize the contrat with the hair.
In selecting lipsticks you can be guided by the Basic Pigment Charts of red (elsewhere in the book).
Spring see Crimson Lake (other possibilities not illustrated are scarlet and geranium lakes).
Summer see rose madder or carmine.
Autumn see vermillion (also burnt sienna)
Winter see cadmium (also scarlet lake).

The skin is especially effective in walls, the background of your home or office; for women in lingerie, blouses and skirts, total costumes, wedding gowns)
The only exception of the above directions is when the skin has either been scared or distorted by burning or infection; then one should not emphasize this in any way.

Skin tones of other nationalities
The four basic variations in skin tones are peach, apricot, rose and violet.
Each is a key to a relationship with a season:
Peach = Spring
Apricot = Autumn
Rose = Summer
Violet = Winter
Just as your skin is the cloak of your body, so skin tone color, appropriately used in clothes, possessions, and your surroundings is native to you and most becoming:
There is no form or adornment or appurtenance, from a jewel in a ring to an automobile that will not prove complementary.

Hair

In analyzing the color of hair, two points need stressing at the outset, regarding grey and white hair:
1) Those whose hair has turned prematurely grey or white, due to lack of pigment in the hair follicles between ages 20 and 30 will take their typing in the Winter season. Those whose hair turns early should find that the contrast between hair and skin becomes a dramatization of the type, and helps those with the blue or deep peach skins in the effectiveness of Winter expression.

2) All others make their evaluations on the basis of the hair tones natural to them in maturity.

Those who are greying, related to the Spring season with pale gold or oyster-white hair, should not strip, tint or dye it to force it to an ivory cast.
The white hair that is natural with the pink or rose skin of the Summer type often becomes a frosty, clear crystal and should be permitted to maintain its own change of pigmentation.

The pewter hair has a slight cast of green, or iron grey hair, often found with peach, apricot or bronze skins which give them richness of contrast related to Autumn.

In whatever season a person finds his relationship, those with hair which turns silver, steel, pewter, iron, crystal or snow white, should remember that the flecks in the eyes, and the whole tonal range of eyes and skin, are intensifies by the hair and the combinations of color which evolve only emphasize the type. There is no need for altering Nature’s intent.

In matching the hair, we must consider basic pigments:
Raw umber
Ivory to walnut

Burnt umber
Blackish brown from light to dark
Ash blonde to dark

Raw sienna
Copper tones
Topaz shadings, reddish-yellow (such as strawberry-blonde, golden redheads)

Burnt sienna
Darker reds

Davey grey
Ash blonde, sometimes platinum blonde blended with umber gives oyster white

Payne’s grey
Smokey tone early in life (seems to frame face with flattering hazy quality)
Sometimes blended with umber or black

Black
Ivory black
Lamp black – flat black has a tendency to look dusky and has a grey sheen; does not have blue or green in the highlights (a strong sheen and warm quality as seen often in the Spanish, Panamanian or some Orientals)
Black-black – often appears on Exotic Winter type, and rarely on any other type unless Oriental.

Yellow
There are two kinds of blond hair:
1. Lemon yellow found in flaxen hair that is pale and silky, with a slight green cast
2. The native pigment being chrome gives a golden yellow glow, even though the undertones may be umber.

Rose madder
Hair with rose color or warm brown tones (usually combined with rose tone skin)
Pale madder values appear as ash blonde.

Brown madder
Generally considered reds, however the look is soft and brownish in the hair coloring; such as seen in the red earth or mahogany.
Winter-colored hair is rich, warm brown that has rosy but not red highlights.

White
The following when reduced to their neutral by diminishing the weight and intensity to near white, gives the shadings in white hair:
Lemon Yellow (platinum natural) Chrome (oyster white) Thio Violet (mother-of-pearl) Davey grey (beige-white) Payne’s grey (iron grey).

With blue-red skin that comes from the pigment of carmine, the hair will often turn white reflecting a pink making the hair look pearlized.

The color of your hair becomes the most complementary neutral for use in your apparel. It can be varied from the very darkest tone at the nape of the neck to the lightest at the temples for subtle variations in dress.

SPRING HUES

Early Spring
Skin tone color: raw umber, lemon yellow, chromium oxide.
Eye color: transparent viridian, cerulean, Payne’s grey.
Hair color: raw umber, lemon yellow.

Golden Spring
Skin tone color: chrome (*chrome yellow, green? orange? don’t know so didn’t put it in*), raw umber, Persian Gold, and scarlet. Skin may also be tinged with white.
Eye color: cerulean, ultramarine blue, or transparent viridian and verde
Hair color: raw umber, chrome yellow medium.

SUMMER HUES

Twilight and Dusky Summer
Skin tone color: thio, thalo violet, parma violet, brown madder
Eye color: Van Dyke brown, chrome yellow, lemon yellow, alizarin crimson
Hair color: oxblood, rose madder, brown madder, Payne’s grey, Davy grey, thio, thalo violet

Iridescent Summer
Skin tone color: magenta, carmine, thio violet, Payne’s grey. Rose madder, brown madder
Eye color: ultramarine, transparent viridian, Payne’s grey
Hair color: rose madder, brown madder, Van Dyke brown, Payne’s grey, burnt umber, chromium oxide.

AUTUMN HUES

Bronze and Mellow Autumn
Skin tone color: raw sienna, chromium oxide, Van Dyke brown, vermilion
Eye color: chromium oxide, chrome and umber blend, Persian gold, Van Dyke brown
Hair color: Van Dyke brown, Persian orange

WINTER HUES

Dynamic Winter
Skin tone color: cadmium red, chromium oxide, vermilion, alizarin crimson
Eye color: burnt umber, chrome green
Hair color: grey-black, green-black, blue-black

Color versus the power of neutrals.
After considering color and its infinite variations which allow us the totality of expression of the four seasons, we should stop to look at Nature again. We have prefaced our taste for color by an appreciation of its vividness and energy, the thrill and stimulation that comes from a range of intensities. For an unusual illustration of color, the accompanying pictures capture the magical and electrifying drama that comes from the night light. The usual connotation of moonlight is blue white, or as in literature and song, we speak of the ”silver moon”. Here we see the moments of brilliance in Nature uniquely displayed at night, photographed in various parts of the world: the magnificent color of a crimson moon; the electric blue of a still, cold night; the deep emerald green sky sunken between two mountain tops; and the lemon and lime strip of moonlight on water.

As some moonlight scenes are swept with a silver wash and raw umber glow, we must stop in awe and wonder also before the lack of color. This kind of beauty is often missed by those who need more shocking, dramatic effects or spectacular sensuality. Yet we should look to the subtleties in Nature for the kind of exquisite simplicity that is not expressed in vibrant tones, where the vibrations are not high but low. Just as the stops of a great organ have every tone contrasted from the tinkle bells through the resounding sounds of waves in the great bass resonance, so we must look to color not only for its strong vibrations, but for those which are restful, gentle and quieting. This we see as ”post-graduate” color, the neutrals, after all of the primaries and complements have enriched us.

We cannot recommend too highly the value of strong color when it is needed, not deny its support when you are weakened by life’s circumstances, when your health is threatened, or when your emotions need recreating. During periods of grief, you cannot express so much of yourself, and you must rely on intensity of color. But when energy is as a high level, you can project color without wearing it. Those who have absorbed color into their viewpoints and attitudes, who are involved in vivid ideas and dedicated to meaningful projects, may use effectively the power and calming effects that neutrals can offer.

Neutrals, strictly speaking, have been considered within the ranges of beige, brown, grey, navy, black, white, and are so delineated in fashion and interior design. While these will be covered in the following review, included also are certain greens and reds which, when subtlety handled, may be used as neutrals by those with certain colorations.

Neutrals are to be used in your principal apparel, such as suits, coats, leathers, and accessories. They can be catalysts for the wardrobe. For your surroundings, neutrals play a role in walls, carpets, wood panelling, furniture and other interior décor. Neutrals are complementary for cars.

In identifying your own pigmentation, you learned that the color of your hair indicates your most becoming neutral. For Orientals and Blacks the neutral will be selected on the basis of the overtone of the skin, as indicated in the peach cast (Spring), rose cast (Summer), apricot cast (Autumn), violet cast (Winter).

Raw Umber
Raw Umber is usually the basis for light, yellow-brown, or medium brown hair, and the paler tints of flaxen hair. In its lighter values, it resembles yellow, almond, buff, citron, yucca. Some of the shadings most popular are walnut, pecan, caramel, butterscotch, honey, linen, oak, pongee, flax, leghorn and white wine.
Used by those who are Spring.

Burnt Umber
Burnt Umber in its lighter tones is seen in sand, grey-beige – like pebbles – willow reed, white birch, stone and, in darker tones, in black walnut and ionized teakwoods.
Used by Early and Vital Spring, and Bronze Autumn.

Raw Sienna
Raw Sienna has the tones of wheat, amber, yellow topaz, brass, pigskin and chamois.
Use by Metallic and Mellow Autumn and by those with Topaz coloring.

Burnt Sienna
Burnt Sienna runs to tile, terra cotta, brick, carnelian, sardonyx and redwood.
Used by all Autumn types.

Van Dyke Brown
Tone range from smoke and otter to bittersweet chocolate and Eastern mink.
Used by Vital Spring, Bronze Autumn, Black-Brown Winter.

Mixed with rose or blue, for rose-beige, fawn brown, taupe.
Used by Summer.

Davey Grey
Shadings of dove, pearl, smoke-pearl, silver-grey, ash.
Used by Summer, natural platinum blondes or Spring or Winter, and with Winter having hair with pewter tones.

Payne’s Grey
Gunmetal, steel, lead, thistle, stone, slate.
Used by Classic, Soft and Dynamic Winters, Blue-Grey Summer (men), and those Summer men and women with pink skins.

Black
Lamp black, appearing as a flat finish (as in wrought iron furniture, or gabardine).
Use by Winter, some Orientals and Blacks.

Chinese Black, appearing as a lustre finish (as in black enamel, or black satin).
Used by Spring when hair is light and skin has lustre; Summer, when skin is pale, and the lines used are soft, the expression delicate; Autumn, when skin is very light coffee color; Winter, when skin is olive or white.

Greens
The backdrop of most natural scenes is some one of the variations on the theme of green. There are nine major green pigments. While it is not possible within this volume to identify all 63 hues we consider necessary to relate the human beings, the following illustrations in the use of green will assist you in recognizing why it is considered a neutral, partly because every flower has a stem and leaf, every tree has green foliage. Every plant and vegetable has a specific pigment. Therefore, just as a black velvet is a backdrop for a ballet dancer, so the masses of green in Nature become its curtain against which the performance of color is demonstrated. For this study, the use of the following five pigments and blends of them are sufficient: Sap Green, Verde Green, Chrome Green, Hooker green, and Transparent Veridian.
Of course, many greens contain more than one pigment and the multitudinous shadings are a complexity of contexts that even the best of artists have difficulty in capturing. The following greens may be used as basic neutrals for those who have sufficient energy to utilize them, instead of matching the hair.

Sap Green
The clearest and most vital of the green pigments, usually appearing in early Spring growth (as in lettuce, pea pods, apple green), becomes a neutral when mixed with any toner.
Only effective on Spring personalities.

Verde Green
A green of the lower key, like all leaves of the English ivy and grape, spruce, palm, moss, lichen, pine.
Used by Summer; by Autumn when blended with other greens.

Chrome Green
Shadings of olive, spinach, asparagus, pickle (dill), sage.
Used by Autumn, and occasionally for Spring when the skin has very little yellow.

Hooker Green
Magnolia leaves, watermelon rid, fir huckleberry.
Used by Winter, and sometimes Spring.

Transparent Veridian
This is the one pigment, whose hues are aqua. Aquamarine, tourmaline, bottle green, that is becoming to all types regardless of skin tone, and hair.
Spring wears the colors clear; Summer wears them muted; Autumn wears them toned, and can add turquoise and peacock; Winter wears the pure pigment.

Indigo
Indigos range is blackberry, blueberry, midnight blue, navy, cadet (Confederate blue), slate.
Used by Vital Spring, Summer, Winter; Winter can add cobalt.

Red
When the skin is very pale or the hair white or taupe, burgundy, mulberry, cranberry, grape or plum in their darker values may be used in place of black or brown, and are preferable.
For Summer and Winter.

White
White is the presence of all color. There are few chalk white textures that do not have some influence from another color. The white gabardine which comes from Argentina is the whitest of white, with the exception of cotton. Stark white is difficult to wear by the average person unless very beautiful or with dramatic coloration; otherwise the white will drain the skin of its color and define imperfections. Whites that are kinder may be found under the following headings:

Oyster White
Tinged with Raw Umber.
For Spring and Autumn

Pearl
Tinged with pink, carmine or rose madder.
For Summer

Green Whites
Tinged with lemon yellow.
For Autumn

Blue White
Tinged with pearl-grey, or any of the blue pigments, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, or cerulean.
For Winter.

Ivory White
Tinged with chrome yellow.
For Spring.

Grey White
Tinged with middle value grey.
For Winter

Chalk White
For Winter.

As you select a neutral or two for your wardrobe, perhaps one light and one dark, and begin to use them, you will find that they serve as a bridge over which color passes from one to another. Neutrals are the orientation for the rest of your colors you use: they express your degree of finesse.
Drawing attention to the contrasts in nature, the illustrations which differentiate between those who express the vivid awe-inspiring sharp intensity of the brilliant colors of the night light and the low key distinguishing differences of the neutral expressions in nature is an opportunity to study the nuances and subtlety we have seen on previous pages. As all human beings have varying impact and intent, so should each demanding circumstance with passivity authority, severity, gentleness or thrill – as the situations call for.
In this way cloaking our self with adroit understanding and wisdom becomes an art attuned to the reality of life – not missing its peak experience of suffocating oneself to needless confusion

Special types

In the case of petite women, there seems to be an historic legendary likeness to symbolic figures, some from mythology, some from folklore, and some from bird life. Defining the type of design that is most becoming for personalities in these categories has been overlooked in the fashion world, yet these special persons should gain their individuality by utilizing the costume effects characteristic for their types. In a more or less composite analysis of these design types, we do not intend to make them a collective idea, but rather to separate them and offer opportunities for research and knowledge that can be gained from books on mythology, folklore and nature. While the following brief descriptions of each type and some of the intangibles have never been done before in this way, a section devoted to the uniqueness and variances in these types seemed important to this work: the pixie, the elfin, the gamine, the sprite, the nymph, the dryad, the butterfly, the dragonfly, the hummingbird, the robin, the bluebird. It is to be understood that there are fine-line differences and similarities between those who have these qualities.

The Pixie
The Pixie usually has chiselled features, with a delicate, peaked brow, high cheek bones with triangular hollows, pointed nose and chin. She is very dainty and is quick and wiry in her movements. She often has delicate fingertips. She can adapt the costumes of the forest and look charming in jerkins from the Shakespearean period, or anything reminiscent of the jester, the herald, or of Lilliputians. She should avoid blunt shoes and emphasize her tiny feet with pointed toes, arched heels and/or lacings that wrap the leg much as in the ballerina shoe.

The Elfin
This is an even smaller bone structure than the Pixie. The Elfin is always five feet or under. She has oblique features, a tendency to hold her head to the side in a quizzical manner. She looks excellent in trimmings such as acorns for earrings or on hats, pointed collars and cuffs, and sometimes evening dresses made of long, pointed kerchiefs that float or seem leaf like. Combinations of blues and greens and variant shades of forest green are basic to her. She looks strange in pinks, blues, lavenders, which do not belong to the forest. Occasionally this type is Spring, or Winter, but most often has an Autumn orientation. If so, she wears brown. If Spring or Winter, she must avoid it.

The Gamine
The Gamine is better known as a type, and has a square chin, angles in the jaw, and high brows and a pert nose, with a face wider than either the Pixie or Elfin.
She is often freckled and tawny haired, or sometimes black haired with a milk-white skin. She is often taller than an Elfin. Our observation is that she is often seen in the theatre or as a dancer.

The Sprite
Also of the same body structure: diminutive, active, quick, wiry movements, high energies. This personality has a tendency to be quick-witted and have alert perceptions. She looks delightful in pickle green, in the yellow of mustard seeds, dried grasses and pods, and in crisp, bright oranges. Her costuming should have an orientation to the Swiss Alps, mountain folk, Tyrolean, or Robin Hood influences.

The Nymph and the Dryad
Nymph and Dryads have the most fragile and delicate body lines and colourings of all the special types. A Nymph is usually Spring and a Dryad more likely Summer, but they are sometimes interchangeable in their colorings. The pale, yellow-greens, delicate blues, and the light yellows are especially expressive of the Nymph; the lavenders, paler pinks and aquas of the water being more characteristic of the Dryad. It is apparent that the sheerest gossamer fabrics be worn with designs of uneven hemlines, floating panels and cape lets, emphasizing the delicacy and transparency of their legendary, fairy-like quality.

The Robin
The Robin, too, has molded features, a blunt chin, often cleft, or cheeks with dimples. This type is always Spring. One of the distinguishing features about her is that she wears feathers better than anyone else: short, smooth feather caps, short feather boas, or marabou on negligees. Very soft furs such as chinchilla, squirrel, and ermine seem natural to her, where grained or thick textures, mottled and patterned fabrics unless they have birds in them, seem to overpower her. She should wear the red of the robin. She would enjoy utilizing bird cages in her lanai or kitchen, and patterns that seem as if birds are among the flowers and the trees of Spring.

The Bluebird
Again, a little person, with blue eyes, a soft texture to the skin, and fine hair. She usually has middle-value coloration and is either Spring or Summer, never Autumn or Winter. Her colors should revolve around Payne’s grey, powder and chalk blue, which are so becoming to her that she need never touch black or brown.

The Hummingbird
The Hummingbird, though tiny, has a round body, high bosom, and tiny legs and feet.
She should wear jackets short to the hip bone and buttoned up the front, with snug, gored skirts having a slight flair at the knee. Usually her colors should be neutral with the emphasis of bright reds, pale yellow, or bright blues, worn at the top of the body, such as the hummingbird’s head is colored. Particular attention should be given to the dainty decorative shoe so that it never appears heavy, clumsy or thick, since part of the beauty of the type is in the spry manner.

The Butterfly
The Butterfly is always pretty with more rounded features, long fluttery eyelashes, delicate, fluttery fingertips, and very tiny feet. She looks beautiful in all the delicate colors of butterflies; pastels with an opaque quality usually related to Spring. Bright pinks, blues, blue-greens with black as a centre are a frivolity in her dress. She uses well small, lacy jabots, lace ruffles, ruffled edges on the bottom of the skirt, sleeves or around the throat, and huge butterfly wings in her evening attire. It would be unnatural for this prettiness to wear a long face, move slowly, or be laborious about anything. She lights lightly, and should live as a blithe spirit.

The Dragonfly
The Dragonfly is a fine-grained person with a slender, thin body and face. She often has a special forte of intuitive perception. She is almost iridescent in her coloring. Iridescence is especially effective in apparel using fabrics that tone from one shade to another or sheer fabrics laid on top of each other such as blue over green, lime over turquoise, reds over purple, purples over blues. Organza, like the dragonfly wing, sari cloth, and other gossamer materials are particularly becoming. She should avoid blunt lines, boxy jackets and anything overwhelming.
The Wren

The Robin

The Nymph

The Dryad

Spring Pixie

Autumn Sprite

Autumn Gamine
Winter Elfin

We need four words, and only four, to understand the harmony and mechanics of color. I would like to illustrate them to you.(from Suzanne Caygill’s The Essence of You)

Spring
The first palette shows us the fresh, vivid buoyant colors of Spring. These colors look water-washed because they are bathed in water as the winter snows melt and the thaws saturate the soil. As the sun permeates the earth, the world suddenly sparkles into bloom. A meadow breaks forth in a bright, clear green. There are lucent blue skies over fields of mustard.
The trees unfurl their curling leaves in a crisp yellow-green. Violets push their heads through the snow. The delicate dogwood appears. Crocuses and narcissus, daffodils, tulips, jonquils and hyacinths burst from their bulbs after lying dormant all winter, soaking up the moisture. Nature literally paints the spring in watercolors.
There is a quick, lively awakening. Wherever you look, there is harmony. It doesn’t make any difference how the colors are put together. In profusion and confusion of a country roadside where wild flowers are blooming, there are reds, pinks, yellows, and varieties of blue. The clear greens underfoot and bright blues of bachelor buttons, bluebonnets and morning glories accentuate the frivolity of Spring.
The quality of spring colors is bright; there are no shadows, no darkness; the colors are fresh and radiant. Their harmonies are related to yellow sunshine.
The key to the colors of Spring is Clarity.

Summer
Summer months bring a change in the quality of the color. As the sun beats down, quieting the hues, they are muted and blended as if seen drawing the water out of the earth back into the heavens, leaving the colors soft. Hills are hung with curtains of chiffon. As the days turn hot and dry, quick rains bring rainbows arching the hillsides. We see larkspur, delphiniums and cosmos on their long slender stems, hollyhocks with other summer companions turning their heads away from the sun. Wisteria and cascading flowers flow over their trellises with graceful lines. Wild rose trails on the fences. The lines of Summer are relaxed. There is an entirely different cast about the colors that turn away from the sun. Because of the warmth, the world seems brushed with a soft blue. Spring yellow-green turns blue-green, clear reds become blue-red, and violets become mauve.
As the summer months advance, the muted colors become grayed, each one blending with its complement -the reds entering the green, the blues entering the oranges, and the violets and yellows shading each other out. Days stretch into long rosy twilights, and dusks are cloaked in purple shadows. Roses turn into ashes-of-roses. The soft browns are blended to rose. Nature seems to paint the summer palette with pastel crayons.
The key to the harmony of Summer is Mutation.

Autumn
Autumn of the year is flamboyant. Almost overnight the crisp cold turns the leaves from their soft greens into flaming corals, brilliant reds, bold yellows, and the deep tawny hues of the forest. With the chilly winds, the leaves dance and finally blow to the ground. We push our feet through the crunchy cinnamons, ambers and browns, that the earth now drops back into itself. Everywhere the colors are rich, mellow and warm. The harvest brings red apples, orange pumpkins, yellow grains, amber and purple grapes, shiny brown nuts, spreading its fruition before us as a feast for life. As the fall pigments blend back to the earth, they are toned to the ambers, the auburns, the raw and burnt sienna’s, the raw and burnt umbers. For the rich tones of Autumn, Nature seems to paint in oils.
The key to the Autumn colors is Tonation.
Winter
Some still, silent night the world turns color again. In the place of whipping winds and the rich heady maturity of Autumn, there is the starkness of Winter, awe-inspiring in its beauty and silence. A winter scene is an etching, finely drawn with a pen or brush, striking by reason of its sharp contrasts. Nature plays freely with the patterns of naked, dark branches silhouetted like lace against electric blue skies. She paints silver on the river. Moonlight is pale silvery-blue, and the stars hang like diamonds. Icicles sparkle on frozen boughs and somber indigo and purple shadows fall on the snow. Even without snow, the background of the Winter world is serenely aloof, but when snow dominates the scene it is starkly white with contrasts of strong blacks, cold neutral grays, deep blues, the dark greens of fir, the sudden reds of flaming poinsettias. Winter in her frozen splendor is regal, dignified; she reigns with a commanding air. The lack of pigmentation and the feeling of space in the winter landscape is one of the beautiful attributes of the season. Nature is at rest.
The key to the Winter palette is Contrast.

Here is some more from her theory.

In spite of all the theoretical an practical work that has been done on color and will be done in the future
It might be almost impossible to establish a fixed color language because color itself is flexible and intangible.
To learn that color is flexible is the first step in opening the viewpoint and laying the foundation for growth in its use. Whether a color is mixed or pure, it has a specific orientation and organization in reference to other colors, and thus needs to be handled like quicksilver…..the ”living” silver, moving, changing, altered by the elements close to it.
As color is fluid, it is also changeable and used as a variable. In its fluidity lies it usefulness. It is apparent in thousands of tests, experiments, and practical applications that each color and its family of tints, tones, and variations are different under varying situations. Each hue is altered by contrast with other colors, influenced by light and shadow, until the same one looks entirely different at a given time and place, or in a different texture or surface.
And so as we observe all the complexities in man-made attempts to design specific systems of color, we turn to the world around us. There we see color as a basic harmony in its authenticity, drawing fine but distinct lines between all forms of plant, animal and human life, distinguishing uniquely everything in the universe. It coordinates the lines of all trees, patterning, segregates night from day, alters with climatic changes of seasons. The natural color system designates a method that goes beyond improvement in its accuracies and subtleties of tonations. If we can obtain from its rhythms, its precision, its continuity, the harmonies that exist, then we need not impose complications that confuse us. Nature provides a harmonious basis for understanding all the systems and methods of color mankind might need.
One of the easiest ways to become acquainted with color and its variations is to look at categories of food; for instance, the berry family, with its blueberries, huckleberries, blackberries, strawberries, cranberries; or the grape family, with its shadings from Thompsons and Catawba’s to Concords; or the nut family, from almonds and pecans to Brazils; or the family of spices – cinnamon, ginger, mace, nutmeg. Open a pea pod and look at fresh peas. They are quite different from those in a can, or after heating. When you are talking about fresh pea green, there is only one way to know it.
As we develop our color awareness, let us remember that color is only half of texture, and texture only half color. You cannot separate the shininess from the redness of an apple, or the frosty cast from the skin of a purple grape, without losing some of the value of the apple or the grape. The relationships built through color and texture are never ending, and as soon as you subtract from one, you subtract from the other. When you look at the white of a camellia, you become aware of its whiteness in relation to the silkiness of its petals. If you were to add another color to it, that color would be camellia leaf green. Carry this thought to the pink inside a watermelon and the complementary green of its rind. Now we begin to see with ever greater sensitivity the supreme artistry in our color world.
Added to these variations is the third dimension: Form. The shape of an apple communicates its sheen and color. It is difficult to imagine the color peach except in the velvety texture of a peach, while the lustrous texture of the Chinese cinnabar is more authentic if it is interpreted in enamel.
Or begin reveling in the beauty of flowers. Try to catch the nuances of color in a bowl of roses. However, our eyes must be more sensitively attuned if we are to see the shadow under a little bush in the wintertime, or the yellow-green veining’s under a black-green leaf, or the tones inside a pommograte which you really don’t see anywhere else. Thus we begin to learn the names of colors from the only source in which there is no confusion.
Try to imagine what the world would be like without all its color, and then presuppose that it is here for a purpose. If we have this much color coming to us and through us every day, we should be recreated at the root, just as every flower, every tree, every animal is sustained by the natural order itself.
In employing Nature’s colors to create a frame of reference for ourselves and our environment, we find that the individual man, woman or child becomes quickly attuned to his or her native taste. This orientation in colors and design offers a sense of belonging; it taps the recourses of the sense of rightness concerning the individual. It seems to release a creative energy and develops at an amazing speed a chain reaction into multiple fields. To put it simply, we are permitted to see ourselves as part of a universal scheme so that the basic elements of form, design, and color may be woven into an active pattern for living that is always expanding.
The key to color harmony is in the concept that everything has a relationship. Einstein, in his observations, gave us the legacy of the relational concept. The technical truths he left us are directed to the fact that there is total relationship, and all relationships therein are automatically and sensitively organized. That such organization already exists, and that we are a part of it, is the premise for the study of personality identification which follows.
To look at the world with eyes that really see what is before them depends upon our awareness of other elements, sound, poetry, literature, art, in all forms, and our sensitivity to all life. In every twenty four hour span, we have the privilege of absorbing the color which is in the universe for our nourishment. Within a year’s cycle, we may observe the rotation of the seasons where the story of color is told again and again and again in the most precise and systematic way. Nature renews and renourishes our being with its great panorama of beauty to tell the story of life as it blooms, fades, dies and recreates itself.
Because I believe that women and men belong to the decorativeness of the earth and are part of the beautiful and universal plan of color, harmony and design, I wish to assist you in accepting the organization of color which will give you this relationship with the natural expressions of beauty and form.
Nature’s color harmonies dwarf all efforts of man. They defy improvement.
Though there may be many color theories, many methods by which to learn to identify color, Nature is the greatest teacher of all. Here is the foundation of all study of color, by whatever method you may pursue.
While Nature divides her colors into four distinctly different groups, she uses a free and lavish hand in her combinations. They are always harmonious because they are related in value and are played against each other with great mastery. Since the first clocking of time, we have identified cycles of vegetation as Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. In these climatic classifications we find the divisions of color – the vividness of Spring, the muted splendor of Summer, the flamboyance of Autumn, and the high drama of a resting Winter.
The simplicity of this arrangement is so obvious, so easily imitated, that we need not be endowed with a special gift in order to use color. We need merely to analyze and then copy her methods of combining colors, adept her effects, orient ourselves to the existing beauty and use it as freely and as effortlessly as she does.
There is a deep emotional protection in Nature’s laws, a satisfaction without which the human being would indeed be distraught. There is a consistency in Nature’s beauty – the assurance that tomorrow the sun will come up in the East and go down in the West, that each sunset will be followed by night and each dawn will bring a new day, that in the rhythms of the earth each seed will produce its own specie, each bud will send forth its special flower. After the plum blossoms will come plums. After the cherry blossom will come cherries. We know that if we plant a tulip bulb a tulip will lift its head to the sun. This consistency, this assurance and comfort allow us to proceed with mental and emotional pursuits without constant fear of disorder. We can scarcely realize the chaos that would exist if we were not protected, fortified and nourished by the calm and unswerving order of our universe. Imagine the frustration and frenzy we would experience if those laws were not dependable! Only in instances of hurricanes, tornadoes, or earthquakes do we experience shock and havoc-wreaking uncertainty. It would be impossible to imagine the complexities of an existence that had no promise of security, no pattern, no rich endowments.
Finding ourselves continuously surrounded by factors of power, beauty and precision, we have come to feel secure within the protection of these universal laws; we accept them unquestioningly. A part of our sense of security is intricately related to our appreciation of beauty. The exquisite coloring of a sunset, the fragrance of a flower, the quiet of shadows, a jeweled rainbow tying the earth to the heavens – these assure us and give us peace.
In animal life, coloring and design serve various practical and necessary purposes: protecting, repelling, alluring, sustaining life. The laws of color and pattern are suitably adapted to each animal’s needs and assist life processes. Animals, birds and insects closely resembling the colors of their environments will escape the notice of their enemies. A leopard is protected by its spotted pelt among the slanting jungle shadows. Zebras are indistinguishable in the forest of bamboo, while the jaguar and other tree cats have speckled coats imitating the rays of filtered light through foliage.
The Canadian hare and the ermine change from white in the Winter to the brown of dead leaves and rocks among which they are found in the Summer. In the Spring and Fall, they are dappled gray and white, or brown and white, to blend with the patches of snow among rocks and leaves. Some animals change rapidly to keep protective harmony with their surroundings, i.e. the chameleon. There are colorings which enable an animal to catch his prey; this group includes the polar bear. The tawny, dark-striped tiger lies in the vertical shadows of the weeds by the waterhole where the antelope come to drink. Mantids, resembling green or brown foliage, look like sticks or withered dried leaves as they stalk their victims. Butterflies whose wings topside look like the flowers among which they flit, have underside markings that make them blend with the surroundings where they instinctively light. The wings of the peppered moth, two inches from tip to tip, resemble grey lichen where he takes his rest. The alluring colorations serve a special purpose in mating rituals, the peacock being the most notable example.
All living forms in the animal and floral worlds seem part of the intricate weaving of the colorful tapestry of the universe. As tiny segments of the great design created by the Master Weaver, the violet is colored for its delicacy; the velvety texture of the pansy is related to its deep jewel tones, while the tint of the orchid is expressive of its fluted edges. You can say with certainty:” This is the leaf, and this is the flower that belongs with it. The relationship is perfect and the colors are right!” Can we imagine challenging Nature’s magnificent organization of design and color by remarking of a magnolia, ”The leaves aren’t the right color,” or of the calla lily, ”It needs to be dabbed up and changed because it doesn’t go with the stem?” Surely no one would think to take such a position.

If we recognize that everything in the organization of the universe is authentic and correct, then we pose the question, ”Does not this organization apply also to human beings?” It seems reasonable to assume that each human being has an individualized design, color, and form that is suitable to his or her intrinsic value and intent.
Edited 14 times by ineke Feb 25 10 4:56 AM.

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ineke  #1 [url] [-]
Sep 20 09 3:05 AMLight Summer
Here is an extra part of the Caygill theory about men.While molecular physicists have claimed that human beings are composed of particles of color, laymen may be permitted the same observations.The pigments of hair, skin, and eyes are the color hallmarks for each person. This triad is your personal color key; it unlocks your relationship to one of Nature’s four color harmonies, whether you are a woman or a man.There seem to be degrees of strength and passivity, of vitality and delicacy, of lightness and darkness, that insinuate masculinity and femininity in the universe. As we know in interior design, no room is beautiful unless it has masculine and feminine elements, hard and soft textures, graduations in sizes and colors. This is the way things are well-balanced to create beauty.The FloralColors above the earth in the infinite array of trees, flowering shrubs and plants which range the full color spectrum of the great seasonal tapestries;The Mineral

Colors in the substrata of the earth and the mineral substances found within it, such as coal, graphite, gold, iron, copper, silver, bronze, cobalt, the granites and marbles and the semiprecious and precious stones.

Masculine coloration

Everything that has been utilized by man which came out of the earth seems to have a masculine color quality. All flower life appears to have more sensitive coloring related to the feminine impulse. Metals and minerals have stronger color intensities and textures than flowers, and men are more natively related to stronger and more vivid colors and textures than women. Women will instinctively find their affinity within the floral expression. Men are encouraged to search out their affinity with the minerals; serious color research in this field is needed.

 

Spring, masculine personal coloring

The male of the Spring color connotation usually has yellow-brown, golden brown, or very deep peach skin, with either blonde, pecan, or chestnut colored hair. Occasionally he may have dark brown hair, but there are golden highlights in either the hair or the eyes. Eyes are usually blue, blue-green, gray-green.

Physical Characteristics:

For Spring men, physiques and body contours fall into four general classifications:

  1. Those who are tall, athletic, loose-joined, even angular, suitable to active outdoor activities, basketball and mountain climbing.
  2. Those appearing generally square cut, having boxy or square shoulders, square hands, wide feet, square jaw. This stature is often found in the football tackle, and this type of person usually lives life like a quarterback.
  3. Those having more middle value coloring, having a tendency to be slight of build, more graceful, but still activity-oriented.
  4. Those having bright blue or blue-green eyes usually have even features, more compact, less angular body structure with neat contours and a more suave personal manner.

 

Personality tendencies (these tendencies seem to have some dominance in men related to the

Spring coloring. The following is to be used merely as a guide for verification)

 

The men whose background is the Spring palette reflect the sparkle and unpredictability of the Spring season. They have a dash and bravado which characterize rogues, rascals and dandies. As a rule, they are very active and enthusiastic about sports where there is speed. They are exhilarated when riding the rapids, sailing boats, flying airplanes, and as vagabonds of the open road. They want to be on the move. They have no delayed reactions, they think and act quickly because they can trust their impulses. They like to push buttons to get things accomplished. They are the persons who are gregarious, who can communicate across barriers and have ready acceptance. If we were to put some of these men into the regalia of conquistadores or the more romantic costumes of troubadours, they would suddenly come alive and feel in character. Others seem to have affinity for the English Beau Brummel and French boulevardier.

They like to dress and look dapper.

There are four basic color groupings for the Spring men: Yellow-Green, Blue-Green, Blue, and Yellow-Brown. One or the other of these classifications is emphasized in the Spring man, but other colors are present in total balanced harmony. For the purposes of this book Spring men are united in their similarities and separated by their differences.

Spring men are hale and hearty, robust and energetic, and physically active. They are characteristically popular, friendly, open-handed, open-hearted and open-minded.

Professions that are most likely to appeal to these vital people are people-oriented, gregarious and communicative on a personal level. They are less likely to sit long hours at desks but are up and out on the open road or in the sky with planes, boats, and travel, and take great satisfaction from conferences and deliberation that involves one-to-one, person-to-person relationships.

 

Colors

 

Those belonging to the water and sky, or are sport-orient, find their affinity with the water hues from aqua to turquoise, blue-greens from under the sea, and also the yellow-greens. Those of the more rugged types favor the yellow-brown spectrum, using caramel, citron, tobacco, walnut and other nut tones. They also wear many greens, and like lots of leather. The dressier types of men are partial to navy and white, and claim that they like any color “as long as it’s blue”.

 

Color combinations

 

Palm Green and Sand

Caramel and Walnut Brown

Grass Green, Pecan, Dark Walnut

Soldier Blue, Crimson

Navy, Sapphire and White

Pastoral Green, Aqua

Black and Flame

Sky Blue, Navy, Spring Green

Old Ivory, Caramel, Butterscotch

Camel, Pecan, French Blue

Ivory and Gray

Calfskin, Gold and Yellow.

 

Spring men, Blue and Blue-Green

 

Skin tone color Raw umber, geranium lake, crimson lake, and chrome oxide.

Eye color: Cerulean, ultramarine, verde, Hooker, chrome yellow, chrome green, umber.

Hair color Raw umber, with more chrome for the blondes and more burnt umber for the brunettes.

 

Spring men, Yellow-Green and Yellow-Brown

 

 

Skin tone color Raw umber, variations in intensity, geranium lake, crimson lake, and chrome oxide.

Eyes Blue-green, blue, green-blue, yellow brown.

Hair Raw umber, with more chrome for the blondes and more burnt umber for the brunettes.

 

Summer, masculine personal coloring

Summer men have often rose brown or rose madder skin, sometimes dusky, sometimes swarthy, when the pigment is high. They have taupe, gray-brown and fawn(brown-grey), smoke(brown-black), or Van Dyke brown(very dark) hair. In some instances they may be blonde without any yellow in the ash blonde or medium light-brown hair. Gray tones override the coloring. Eyes are usually a deep blue-green, very light chalk blue, and sometimes brown.

 

Physical characteristics

Features are usually narrow, oval or elongated; only occasionally are they square. Tall, long throats, long arms, long hands, long legs, the smooth graceful body lies have no rugged angularity but contours that blend as the body moves with easy rhythm. The exception may be the individual who is shorter of stature and fuller through the trunk.

 

Personal tendencies(these tendencies seem to have some dominance in men related to the

Spring coloring. The following is to be used merely as a guide for verification)

 

Gentlemanly men of the Summer type have adroit capacities for handling business affairs. Their ability to use indirection adds to their skills. Their composure under stress situations, their capacity for negotiations and the mediation of difficult matters are some of their significant contributions. Philosophical and psychological matter interest them. They often enter professions that call for intensive research, accurate and precise equations. They are adept at preparing professional papers, legal or political briefs, or trade materials. They excel in elaborate paper work and program planning, and also make good accounting authorities. On the other hand, they may be led by their intuitive natures into artistic pursuits. They may be the poets, writer, musicians, composers, and artists who function on a creative level and yet easily participate in both worlds.

 

Colors

 

Color which Summer men favor are the soft sleek blues and grays, the rose-browns and the deep wine tones. The quality of the color is muted. These men are not enhanced by tweeds or rough fabrics; they look best in smooth textures and fine tailoring.

 

Color combinations

 

Slate Blue, Thio Violet, Plum

Navy, Burgundy, Sapphire

Silver Gray, Claret, Chalk Blue

Taupe, Shell Pink, Mauve

Red Brick and Shell

Navy, Powder Blue, Emerald Green

Steel Blue, Light Gray, Burgundy

Eggplant and Silver Gray

Fawn Brown, Claret, Café au Lait

Lapis Lazuli, Tourmaline, Aquamarine

Smoke, Pearl and Port

Ruby, Sapphire, Silver Gray.

 

Summer men, English Summer and Sunset Summer

 

Skin tone color: English red, Indian red, muted with verde or Payne’s gray

Eye color Payne’s gray, steel blue, ultramarine blue, transparent viridian

Hair color Brown madder, muted with Payne’s gray, Davey gray.

Autumn, personal masculine coloring

 

The pigmentation of men related to the Autumn season is based on orange, raw and burnt umber, raw and burnt sienna in skin tones which give them a bronze, brown or rusty coloring; in the lighter tones, amber and apricot. The lightest skin is café au lait, which is usually related to red hair. Hair of Autumn men ranges from red to the darkest of browns.

 

Physical characteristics

 

The features are irregular, often very angular and enhanced by the uneven proportions. These men have stalwart physiques with innate tensile strength. They walk with a firm step. They are powerhouses of energy and know nothing of fatigue.

 

 

Personal tendencies(these tendencies seem to have some dominance in men related to the

Autumn coloring. The following is to be used merely as a guide for verification)

 

Autumn men seem made of iron. They have driving energy and are hard workers. They may be found in the fields of business administration, finance, mining. They often go into electrical or structural engineering. They may be found as successful architects and designers, city and building planners. They have a high sense of drama, whether they are related to the theatre or designing a dramatic presentation of their business. They have the drive, energy and scope for politics. Leaders in a forceful way, they enjoy running meetings and conventions, getting people together. Others of the more rugged types may find vocations related to the out-doors like forest ranger or mounted policeman. Autumn men seem to enjoy homes with dark paneling, heavy carpeting and leathers. They like to be encased in an interior. They would not feel comfortable in a desert scene, or in a home perched on a ledge overlooking the world. They prefer encasement like a forest with lush greenery.

 

Colors

 

Types related to the fall season wear all the colors of Autumn leaves, amber, gold, rust, copper, bronze, and the dark rich browns. They will even wear red if has brown in it. Redheads look best in off-white, oyster, smoked pearl, birch bark, sandalwood, and shades of honey. Men with rust-toned skins, because of the orange in their pigmentation, are not flattered by red. They look well in gray-beiges, putty colors, the cinnamon and spicy tones, and the rusty browns. The darkest men of the Autumn type with the distinctive black-green hair, feel most themselves in complementary hues like black-olive, black walnut, and shades of blackish-green. Men with brownish skins and brown hair look more like the Winter type, but they wear Autumnal browns for their identification.

 

Color combinations

 

Chocolate Brown, Red Earth, Chamois

Olive Green, Topaz, Crimson

Coffee and Copper

Peacock Green, Peacock Blue, Pheasant Brown

Sunset Orange, Rust, Beige

Jade, Chocolate Brown, Beige

Golden Wheat, Oyster White, Coffee

Turquoise, Terra Cotta, Caramel

Crimson, Chocolate Brown

Bronze Green, Light Topaz

Olive Green, Tokay, Chartreuse

Burnished Red(Indian), Davey Gray, Off-White.

 

Autumn men, Topaz Autumn, Bronze Autumn

 

Skin tone color Raw umber, Persian gold and Van Dyke brown, sienna, umber, Indian red, copper skin tone

Eye color Chrome green, Van Dyke brown, raw umber, burnt umber, Persian gold

Hair color Burnt umber, burnt sienna or Van Dyke brown.

 

Winter, personal masculine coloring

 

Men related to the color harmonies of Winter have a skin tone which is usually olive, or deep rich coral or peach blending toward Persian orange. Hair is black. When it changes it becomes iron, silver-gray or white at the temples, and sometimes a mustache or beard remains black or sometimes peacock.

 

Physical characteristics

 

 

The masculine version of Winter is long, lean and even cut. He has symmetry in his features and graceful carriage and body movements.

 

 

Personal tendencies(these tendencies seem to have some dominance in men related to the

Winter coloring. The following is to be used merely as a guide for verification)

 

Reminiscent of the past, men of Winter coloring seem to typify the kings, the knights, the earls, the princes. They are polished gentlemen with great gallantry toward women. Winter men are administrators, delegating the physical activity to others. They are suited to advertising, public relations and similar professions dealing in the abstracts. Often they have comprehensive vision which gains for them roles in executive and managerial posts where the overview is decisive. Winter men usually have smooth, melodic voices. Like Winter women, they value silence and need some in their daily routines. Theirs is the appreciation for the statements:

“Silence is the greatest single element in music.

Space is the greatest single element of art.”

 

Colors

 

 

For Winter men, the quality of color used is in its value: the strong contrasts between black and white, the blues from light to dark, the grays from light to dark coming from all three origins such as Payne’s gray, Davey gray, and the black/white variations. Most Winter orientation comes from minerals and metallic’s such as gunmetal, pewter, silver, black iron, chromium and glass. The color combinations of pure pigments, such as cobalt, cadmium, and thalo blues and purples, give focalized definition and drama against the neutrals indicated above. Smooth, hard surface fabrics are best for Winter men.

 

Color combinations

 

 

 

Gunmetal, Emerald and White

Black with Crimson or Electric Blue

Winter Green and Electric Blue

Aquamarine and Lapis Lazuli

Blackberry or Blueberry and Aquamarine

Tourmaline and Slate Gray

Chalk White and Gray-Beige

Ultramarine and Ivory-White

Pewter and Putty

Winter Green and Chalk Blue

Putty and Indian or Blood Red

 

Winter men, Patrician ( Gunmetal, Silver, Steel Blue)Dynamic Winter (Slate Blue)

 

Skin tone color Olive produced by a blend of Davey gray, chromium oxide, chrome-green

Eye color chrome green, chromium oxide, transparent viridian

Hair color usually black and brown-black, pewter, iron gray, white
Edited 3 times by ineke Feb 25 10 5:24 PM.

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